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by Sterling D. Allan

> Alphabetics > "Cross"

The Salvation of the Cross Witnessed in Alphabetics

In NT Greek | In English | In OT Hebrew

scrolb14.gif (1380 bytes) Words around "Crucify" in Greek

The words surrounding the word for "cross" in Greek (James Strong) portray an amazing commentary on the salvation of the cross.

Word #4362 in Greek means

"to fasten to, i.e. (spec.) to impale (on a cross); -- crucify."

The word following that (4363 prospipto) has a couple of meanings. First,

"To prostrate oneself in supplication or homage; -- fall down before." 

This word is very fitting for the image of the cross.  Eventually, every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess that Jesus is the Christ.

The second meaning of word 4363 is,

"To violently rush upon (in storm): -- beat upon." 

This portrays the image of the storm which the adversary brings, from which those who are built on the rock of Christ will be preserved; while those who are not will fall.

The definition of a word further down (4366 prosraygnoomee) portrays this more graphically:

"to burst upon (as a tempest or flood): -- beat vehemently against."

A group of four words a few words back elaborate on this yet further.

4348 proskommah & 4349 proskopay: "occasion of apostasy: -- offence, stumbling, stumbling block, stumbling stone." ["And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem." (Isa. 8:14; 1 Pet. 2:8.)]

4350 proskopto: "To strike at, i.e. surge against (as water); spec. to stub on, i.e. trip up: -- beat upon, dash, stumble at."

But when Christ is our foundation, he enables us to...

4351 proskooleeo, "block against"

these onslaughts. Hence the next group of words.

4352 proskooneho: "prostrate oneself in homage (do reverence to, adore): -- worship."

4353 proskoonaytace: "an adorer: -- worship."

4354 proslaleho: "to talk to, i.e. converse with" [calling upon the Lord].

The result:

4355 proslambano & 4356 proslapesis: "to take to oneself, lead, admit (to friendship): -- receive."


4357 prosmeno: "to stay further, i.e. remain in a place, with a person; to adhere to, persevere in: -- abide still, be with, cleave unto, continue in." ["The Father...shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you." (John 14:16-18.)]

And therefore,

4358 prosormidzo: "To anchor; to moor to" [our Foundation].

Then, emphasizing the sacrifice required of us to come unto Christ, namely bringing forth a broken heart and contrite spirit, two words just prior to the word for "crucify" -- which was the ultimate sacrifice, making all this possible -- are

4359 prosofiilo: "to be indebted additionally"


4361 prospinos: "hungering further, i.e. intensely hungry."

Isaiah captures these two concepts, saying,

"Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? and your labour for that which satisfieth not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness." (55:1,2.)

Because of agency, we do not have to let the awful awareness of our nothingness and vulnerability to Satan bring us to Christ. Sandwiched between these two words is

4360 prosokhthidzo: "(to be vexed with something irksome); to feel indignant at: -- be grieved with."

which brings to mind the scripture:

"Ye are they that forsake the LORD, that forget my holy mountain. Therefore will I number you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter: because when I called, ye did not answer; when I spake, ye did not hear; but did evil before mine eyes, and did choose that wherein I delighted not. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, my servants shall eat, but ye shall be hungry: behold, my servants shall drink, but ye shall be thirsty: behold, my servants shall rejoice, but ye shall be ashamed: Behold, my servants shall sing for joy of heart, but ye shall cry for sorrow of heart, and shall howl for vexation of spirit." (Isa. 65:11-14.)

Therefore the Lord says,

"Incline your ear, and come unto me: hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you [= fullness of the gospel (D&C 66:2; 133:57)], even the sure mercies of David." (Isa. 55:3.)

Highlighting now the word "come," let us look further back in the Greek. To tie into the idea of hungering and thirsting, let us start with

4326 prosdehomahee: "to require additionally, i.e. want further: -- need."

Words 4327, 4328, 4329, and 4332 all have the meaning,

"To watch, wait,"

and include the words,

"anticipation; expectation; looking for."

which brings to mind the scripture,

"The people of the Lord are they who wait for him; for they still wait for the coming of the Messiah." (2 Ne. 6:13.)

This statement is directed to the Gentiles (6:12), pointing them to the time when

"the Messiah will set himself again the second time to recover them; wherefore, he will manifest himself unto them in power and great glory" (2 Ne. 6:14; 25:15);

"wherefore, he will proceed to do a marvelous work and a wonder among the children of men" (2 Ne. 25:15).

The charge given to the Jews, however, is

"that they need not look forward any more for a Messiah to come, for there should not any come, save it should be a false Messiah which should deceive the people; for there is save one Messiah spoken of by the prophets, and that Messiah is he who should be rejected of the Jews." (2 Ne. 25:18.)

He is the Messiah for whom they were waiting.

Then, as if to answer the implied question of 4330, "to permit further progress," comes the word

4331 prosengghidzo: "to approach near: -- come nigh;"

followed by

4334 proserkhomahee: "come near, or (fig.) worship: -- come unto, draw near."

Next, appropriately are two words (4335, 4336) that mean,

"worship: -- prayer."

Then comes a word (4337 prosekho) that urges,

"pay attention: -- give heed."

To what? 4338 prosayloo:

"to peg to, i.e. spike fast: -- nail to."

The unspoken antecedent goes without saying; and the next few words, though having very different meanings, combine to depict the foreordained purposes of God in setting up his chosen people to crucify their Messiah, so that the stone which the builders rejected might become the headstone of their corner.

4339 prosaylootos: "a convert to Judaism: -- proselyte."

4340 proskaheeros: "for the occasion only, i.e. temporary: -- for awhile"

[Judaism served as a precursor to Christianity; just as Christianity is a precursor to the great and marvelous work, out of which will arise Zion].

4341 proskalehomahee: "to summon, invite."

4342 & 4343: "perseverance."

4345, 4346, & 4347: "to associate with, lean towards, adhere, cleave, join."

That brings us back up to

4348 & 4349: "stone of stumbling."

scrolb14.gif (1380 bytes) Words around "Crucify" in English

In English, the word after the forms of "crucify*" is

crude: "(1) In a natural state; not cooked or prepared by fire or heat; not altered or prepared for use by any process; raw. (3) Unripe; not mature or perfect. (4) Wanting finish, grace."

This describes the natural man who is an enemy of God, in need of a change of heart.

A word following that describes the tenor of the crowd who did he crucifying whereby all might attain mercy if they but receive it.

cruel: "merciless."

It is fitting, therefore, that the word prior to "crucify" is

crucible: "(1) A vessel used for melting substances which require a high degree of heat, as metals. (3) As for testing by fire."

This brings to mind the baptism of fire and of the Holy Ghost, which is wrought when one bows down before the Lord with a broken heart and contrite spirit, repenting of all his sins.

A word prior to that is

crucial: "(2) Of the nature of, or relating to, a supreme trial or a final choice or decision; supremely critical; decisive."

Indeed, the question, "What think ye of Christ," is one that all must eventually answer decisively.

An finally, a word not far before that is

crown: "(1) A wreath, garland, or fillet about the head, esp. as a reward of victory or mark of honor; hence, anything given for, or obtained by, faithful or successful effort."


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H.W.F. Gesenius; Gesenius' Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon of the Old Testament; Baker Books, Grand Rapids, MI 49516; 1979. ISBN: 0-8010-3736-0 (softcover)

James Strong; Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible; Hendrickson Publishers, ISBN 0-917006-01-1.


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